Duhem, Pierre | Economics: philosophy of the | Empiricism: | logic Helmholtz, Hermann von | Seriously, | Scientific models| | operationality Physics: | experience Poincaré, Henri | Quantum Theory: Philosophical Questions in | Reichenbach, Hans | Science: theory and observation in | Scientific objectivity| Wiener Kreis The scientific method is iterative. At each stage, it is possible to refine its accuracy and accuracy, so that certain reflections lead the scientist to repeat an earlier part of the process. If an interesting hypothesis cannot be developed, it may lead a scientist to redefine the subject in question. If a hypothesis does not produce interesting and verifiable predictions, this may lead to a further revision of the hypothesis or definition of the subject. If an experiment does not get interesting results, it may lead a scientist to review the experimental method, hypothesis or definition of the subject. the relationship between theory and experience and clusters of laboratories for research and training varies across scientific disciplines. Within these disciplines, practices associate the general with the specific. Ideally, research practices reflect the values of the broader research community and also embody the practical capabilities needed to conduct scientific research. This source of bias may be acceptable if it is influenced by scientific ideas and judgments. But political, financial or other sources of bias can corrupt the data selection process. In situations where both types of influence exist, it is particularly important for scientists to learn about potential sources of bias in interpreting research results. The link between science and other social objectives in promoting economic growth and commercial technology requires increased vigilance in order to maintain acceptable standards for disclosure and control of conflicts of interest and financial or competitive biases in the field of research.
The lack of a distinction between appropriate and inappropriate sources of bias in research practices can lead to an erosion of public confidence in the autonomy of the research enterprise. Many scientists have noted the implicit nature and informality of the processes that often guide the practices and conclusions of scientific research.3 Research in established areas of scientific knowledge, guided by generally accepted theoretical paradigms and experimental methods, has little difference of opinion on what is recognized as solid scientific evidence.